History of Hanworth
Hanworth is a small parish lying to the east of Feltham, Middlesex to the west of London .
Hanworth was held in the time of Edward the Confessor by Ulf, a 'huscarl' of the king. It was granted by William I to Roger de Montgomery, Earl of Arundel, under whom it was held by one Robert. Earl Roger's English estates were inherited by his second son Hugh de Montgomery, but after the latter's death in the Mowbray conspiracy of 1098 they passed to the eldest son Robert de Bellesme, who in turn rebelled against the king in 1102, with the result that all his lands were confiscated. It is likely that the overlordship of Hanworth came in this way to the Crown. It was probably attached to the honour of Wallingford during the reign of Henry II, and formed part of that honour apparently until 1539. In 1540 it was annexed to the honour of Hampton Court .
The family of Dayrell of Lillingstone Dayrell, Buckinghamshire, held the manor for several generations of the honour of Wallingford by the service of half a knight's fee. It is uncertain when they were first connected with Hanworth. According to an ancient pedigree, Robert Dayrell, who lived during the latter part of the 12th century, is styled 'of Hanworth.' Ralph Dayrell his son held half a knight's fee of the honour of Wallingford , which probably represents Hanworth, from about 1166 to about 1210. His son Henry Dayrell certainly held Hanworth about 1212 and his grandson, also named Henry, who held the manor in the reign of Edward I, certified that his ancestors had been lords of Hanworth time out of mind. He died in possession of the manor in 1303, holding it jointly with his wife Alice. The manor was settled for the term of her life on Alice, who was still living in 1316. Henry Dayrell left a son and heir named Henry, who was sixteen years of age at the time of his father's death. He was alive in 1307-8, when he made a feoffment of the manor. (Footnote 21) In 1316 the king was holding in Hanworth, probably on account of the minority of the younger Henry's heir, who seems to have been John Dayrell. The latter certainly held the manor in 1335, and was still in possession in 1353. He was succeeded by his son Sir Roger Dayrell. In 1377 Roger conveyed all his rights in Hanworth to Alan Ayete of Shalderton, and John Chamberlayn, clerk.
Later in the same year Alan Ayete surrendered his claim to John Chamberlayn, who then granted the manor to Thomas Godlak. The latter enfeoffed Thomas Walyngton, Gilbert Manfield, and William Makenade, and these again enfeoffed John de Macclesfield, the king's clerk. The manor was occupied at the will of the lord by Sir Nicholas Brembre. Sir Nicholas was Lord Mayor of London for part of 1377 and again in 1377-8. He was the strong supporter of Richard II among the London merchants, and was knighted for his services during the peasants' march on London in 1381. He was again mayor in 1383-4, representing the king's party; and was also a member of Parliament for London. He narrowly escaped impeachment in 1386; but in November 1387 he was accused of treason by the lords appellant, and was hanged at Tyburn in February of the next year.
After his execution Hanworth was taken into the king's hand, but as it was found that Sir Nicholas had no real estate there, but was only a tenant at will, the right of John de Macclesfield was restored in 1391. Idonea, the widow of Sir Nicholas Brembre, bought back a large proportion of her husband's personal property in July 1388. Amongst the forfeited goods and chattels in the manor of Hanworth she was so prudent as to purchase a brass pot for 18d., a leaden pot for 2s., fourteen oxen, and other commodities to the value of £54 5s. 4d. John de Macclesfield may have lost his lands after the fall of Richard II, as in the early 15th century the manor was apparently occupied by a fresh owner.
The manor was held in 1428 by Henry Somer, warden of the Mint under Henry VI. He died about 1450, and his right in Hanworth probably reverted to the Crown. Later in the same century the manor came into the possession of Sir John Crosby, alderman of London, and founder of Crosby Hall. After his death in 1475 the custody of the manor was granted during the minority of his son John to Thomas Rigby and William Bracebridge. Sir John Crosby the younger died in 1500-1 in possession of the manor which had been settled previously on Thomas Winterbourne and other trustees for the use of John and his wife Anne, with remainder in default to Peter Christmas the next of kin. The latter being already dead in 1500-1, John Crosby's heir was found to be the posthumous son of Peter Christmas, aged six months. His trustees appear to have conveyed the manor during the same reign to Sir John Huse, and by an exchange of land in 1512 Hanworth came to the Crown. In 1521 the lands of the manor, excluding the manor house, were let to Sir Richard Weston, and in 1530 Stephen Gardiner received the reversion of the same property, together with the site and all other appurtenances, to hold for life. In 1532 these patents were surrendered, and the 'manor of Hanworth,' except the manor house, was granted to Anne Boleyn for 99 years; a month later the house was granted to her for life. In 1536 Gregory Lovell was appointed to the office of keeper of the manor. Hanworth was settled in 1544 on Katherine Parr, sixth and last queen of Henry VIII. After her death it is said to have been granted, probably for life, to Anne Duchess of Somerset, who was certainly living there with her second husband, Francis Newdigate, in August 1563, when her son the Earl of Hertford was removed to Hanworth from the Tower, where he had been imprisoned on account of his marriage with Lady Katherine Seymour. In 1594 the manor was leased to William Killigrew, groom of the privy chamber under Elizabeth , for about eighty years on surrender of a former grant for life. He was succeeded by his son Robert, who conveyed the remainder of the lease to Francis Lord Cottington. The manor was granted by the king in 1627 to Sir Roger Palmer and Alexander Stafford, who acted as trustees for Francis Lord Cottington. The latter was a prominent figure in the reigns of James I and Charles I. Having accompanied Sir Charles Cornwallis, the English Ambassador in Spain in 1609, and afterwards acted as English agent and consul, Cottington was much in request on his return on account of his knowledge of Spanish affairs. He was concerned in the question of the Spanish marriage, and though disapproving of Prince Charles's journey to Spain , he was sent with him and took part in the negotiations at Madrid . He acted as ambassador to Spain from 1629, and as a reward for negotiating the secret treaty of 1631 he was raised to the peerage as Baron Cottington of Hanworth, receiving the honour 'at Greenwich in a very solemn manner.' As the Civil War drew near he declared himself an active member of the war party, and after hostilities had broken out he joined the king at Oxford . He was excepted by Parliament from indemnity and composition, and spent the remainder of his life abroad, dying in Spain in 1652. His estates were assigned in 1649 to John Bradshaw the regicide, but were recovered at the Restoration by his nephew and heir Charles Cottington, son of his elder brother Maurice.
Charles Cottington did not keep Hanworth long, for he sold it in 1670 to Sir Thomas Chamber. The latter died in 1692 and was succeeded by his son Thomas. Thomas Chamber left two daughters and co-heiresses, and Hanworth passed, through the marriage of the elder, to Lord Vere Beauclerk, who was created Baron Vere of Hanworth in 1750. The manor was inherited by his son Aubrey Lord Vere in 1781, who succeeded his cousin as Duke of St. Albans six years later. He still held the manor in 1802, but conveyed it very shortly after to James Ramsey Cuthbert. Frederick John Cuthbert was lord of the manor in 1816, but it passed before 1832 to Henry Perkins. After the death of his heir Algernon Perkins, before 1866, it was in the hands of his devisees, but was bought before 1887 by Messrs. Pain & Bretell, solicitors, of Chertsey , who are lords of the manor at the present day.
Henry Dayrell claimed the right to hold a view of frankpledge and amends of assize of bread and ale in the reign of Edward I. The king's attorney said his claim dated from the grant by Henry III of the honour of Wallingford to Richard Earl of Cornwall and King of Almain. The jurors said that the Dayrells had, before that grant, held a meeting of all their tenants in Hanworth, and had taken the amendment of assize of bread and ale, and all that appertained to the view of frankpledge; and that after Henry III had given the honour of Wallingford to the Earl of Cornwall the latter's bailiff had attached all the men of Hanworth to the view held for that honour at Uxbridge. It appears that although the Dayrells obviously had no chartered right to hold the view, yet their right which accrued from custom was allowed. Yet it seems as though a rent was paid in 1303 to the Earl of Cornwall for the view, and in the 15th and 16th centuries the view seems always to have been held by the overlord.
Fishing rights were among the appurtenances of the manor in 1303. Lord Cottington had a grant of free warren in Hanworth Park in 1638.
A water-mill belonging to the manor is mentioned in 1303. In 1340 there was a mill known as Eldeford in Haneworth, which apparently stood near the dyke called 'the Mersdich,' which ran between Hanworth and Kempton. Litigation took place concerning this dyke and the foot-bridge which crossed it and led to the mill. In the early part of January 1338-9 Roger, Bishop of Coventry and Lichfield, complained that though he was not liable to repair the dyke except in proportion to the use made of it by his yokes of oxen (pro averiis spannatis) and had done his part sufficiently therein, and though he ought not to repair the foot-bridge by the mill, yet he had been amerced by the sheriff to the amount of 38s. 8d. on the pretext that the dyke was not properly cleansed nor raised nor the foot-bridge repaired. The sheriff was accused of having fined him on insufficient evidence, and was accordingly commanded to appear before the king, and to bring with him four good men from each of the four townships nearest the bridge. The sheriff appearing on the day appointed, said that the bridge was in a dangerous state by default of John Dayrell, lord of Hanworth, who was bound to repair it as his ancestors had been used to do within the memory of man. The four men from the townships could not attend, as the order had come too late, and the case was adjourned to a later date. It was again respited to midsummer, when, the bishop, sheriff, and four men from each of the townships of Twickenham, Hampton, East Bedfont, and Feltham being present, it was found by the jury that the bridge was not for the common use, but only a little bridge by Eldeford mill for the easement of the miller and those of the neighbourhood who came to grind corn; and that the lord of Hanworth was not bound to repair it. The bishop recovered the amount of his amercement, while the sheriff was declared to be in mercy for taking presentment without his jurisdiction, it being found that one end of the bridge leading to Hanworth was within the liberty of the honour of Wallingford , and the other within the liberty of Queen Philippa's manor of Isleworth.
Hanworth Park is not mentioned before the beginning of the 16th century, so that it may have been made either by the Crosbys or by the king. It was held as part of the manor of Hanworth, and became a royal seat in the reign of Henry VIII, 'where,' says Camden , 'he had the diversion at all times of the buck and hare.' The park had been enlarged in the preceding reign by the addition of a considerable amount of land in the adjoining parish of Feltham. Much care seems to have been expended both on the house and gardens under Henry VIII. The office of keeper of the park was granted to Sir Richard Weston, who held it early in the reign, and on the occasion of Princess Mary's residence at Hanworth in 1522 sent her a New Year's present of twelve pairs of shoes. The park was granted with the manor-house to Stephen Gardiner in 1530, and to Anne Boleyn in July 1532. In 1544 it was settled for life on Katherine Parr, who continued to live there after the king's death, with her second husband, Sir Thomas Seymour. The Princess Elizabeth, whose education was entrusted to Katherine, came to live there at the age of fifteen. Seymour indulged in such familiarities with the princess as to lay himself open at his impeachment to the charge of having attempted to gain the affections of Elizabeth with a view to seating himself on the throne as Prince Consort, after he should have rid himself of Queen Katherine.
After the queen's death in 1548 the custody of the park is said to have been entrusted to William, Earl of Pembroke. It came in 1594 into the hands of William Killigrew, who was a person of some importance under Elizabeth and James I. Besides being groom of the privy chamber, he was granted the right to farm the profits of the Queen's Bench and Common Pleas, in return for which he supported the court interest in Parliament, where he represented various Cornish boroughs in succession. In 1600, during his keepership of the park, Elizabeth visited Hanworth, and remained some days, spent mostly in hunting in the park. Sir William Killigrew died in 1622, and his son Sir Robert transferred the remainder of the lease of Hanworth Park to Lord Cottington. Of the various members of the Killigrew family who were born or baptized at Hanworth three suffered to a severe extent for the royal cause. Sir Robert's elder son William was gentleman-usher to Charles I. He compounded for his estates in 1653 and was restored to his position at court under Charles II.
His brother, Henry Killigrew, D.D., a prebendary of Westminster , suffered many hardships during the Interregnum. He recovered his stall at the Restoration, and was made almoner to the Duke of York, and died as rector of Wheathampstead in Hertfordshire in 1693. Both he and his brother attained some fame as dramatists, and his daughter Anne Killigrew was a poetess of some note at the time. Sir Thomas Killigrew, the son of William, was also probably born at Hanworth. He acted as page to Charles I, and accompanied Charles II in exile.
When Hanworth Park came into the possession of Lord Cottington he effected several improvements. In 1629 he wrote to Lord Strafford: 'There begins to grow a brick wall all about the gardens at Hanworth, which though it be a large extent yet it will be too little for the multitude of pheasants, partridges and wild-fowl that are to be bred in it.' And further that 'dainty walks are made abroad inasmuch as the old porter with the long beard is like to have a good revenue by admitting strangers that will come to see these varieties. It will be good entertainment to see the amazement of the barbarous northern folk who have scarce arrived to see a well cut hedge, when the fame of these varieties shall draw them thither.' His wife Anne, daughter of Sir William Meredith and widow of Sir Robert Brett, took an equal interest in the park. He speaks of her as 'the principal contriver of all this machine, who with her clothes tucked up and a staff in her hand, marches from place to place like an Amazon commanding an army.' In 1635 Lord Cottington entertained the queen and all her court in great splendour at Hanworth. He received a grant of free warren here in 1638 as well as licence to inclose 50 acres of land. When hostilities broke out between the king and Parliament, his Royalist sympathies led to a search for arms in his house at Hanworth. Cottington himself was away, and the house was in the charge of his servants. These petitioned Parliament for the apprehending of the delinquents, who had come with swords and guns and had attempted to pull down the palings of Hanworth Park and to ransack and pillage the house 'under colour of a pretended power to search for arms by virtue of a warrant surrepticiously gotten as the petitioners conceive and was directed to none there present.' There was a second attack on the house a few months later (January 1642-3), when a company of soldiers forced an entry and took away all the weapons they could find. When pleading for the restoration of the arms or for licence to furnish themselves with others, Lord Cottington's servants urged the need of means of defence against vagabonds, thieves and robbers, because 'the house stands removed from any neighbours and destitute from others in time of danger.' The house, which stood near the church, was destroyed by fire in 1797. The moat and a few traces of the buildings may still be seen. The present house stands further to the south-east. It was built by the Duke of St. Albans shortly after the destruction of the older mansion. In the 19th century it was well-known to bibliophiles for the fine library of old books and manuscripts collected by Mr. Henry Perkins, which was sold by auction in 1873. The house is now the residence of Mr. Alfred Lafone, J.P., to whom and to Mr. James Scarlett and others Messrs. Pain & Bretell sold the park about 1873.
The church of St. George is a modern building of stone in 14th-century style, and consists of an apsidal chancel 24 ft. 9 in. by 18 ft. 5 in., a nave 60 ft. 3 in. by 23 ft. 3 in. with north and south porches, a north transept 13 ft. 10 in. long by 14 ft. 3 in. wide, and a north-east tower with a tall broach spire. The ground stage of the tower is used as a vestry. The churchyard is inclosed by an iron railing on a dwarf wall, and is entered from the south-east through a well-designed wooden lych-gate.
There is one bell, by Thomas Mears, 1814.
The plate consists of a silver cup and paten (1632) bearing the arms of Francis Lord Cottington, the donor; a silver paten (1781); chalice (1874) and flagon (1882). The registers begin in 1731.
The church is first mentioned in 1293, when the advowson occurs in a grant of the manor. The living is a rectory, the patronage of which descended with the manor (q.v.) until it was sold by Henry Perkins to the rector, the Rev. Oswald Joseph Cresswall, before 1866. It was in the gift of Mr. John Bagot Scriven in 1874, from whom it passed to the Rev. John Lyndhurst Winslow, who was rector of Hanworth from 1879. The advowson is now held by his widow.
Adam de Brome, the founder of Oriel College , Oxford , was rector of Hanworth in 1315. Of his early life nothing is known. He was Chancellor of Durham in 1316, Archdeacon of Stowe in 1319, and was made vicar of St. Mary's, Oxford , in the same year. He obtained a licence to found a college at Oxford in 1324, and died in 1332.
Samuel Croxall, D.D., who's well-known Aesop's Fables were published in 1722, was the son of the Rev. Samuel Croxall, rector of Hanworth, and of Walton on Thames .
In 1548 there was a 'guild church' in Hanworth, to which belonged a church-house used for the 'assembelling of officers of the guild to drinck and thereat to gather money for the reparacion of the church.' This house may perhaps be the same as a tenement in Hanworth which was in the occupation of the guardian of the church for the support of a 'gildar' or 'church iles,' granted in 1562 to Cecilia Pickerell, widow of John Pickerell, in part payment of a debt owed to her late husband by Edward, Duke of Somerset, in whose household John Pickerell occupied the posts of treasurer and confessor.
In 1745 the Right Hon. Lord Vere Beauclerk gave an annuity of £6 for the poor chargeable upon certain copyhold property. The annuity is paid by Mr. Alfred Lafone, of Hanworth Park .
Poor's Land.-Under the Hanworth Inclosure Act (40 Geo. III), 3 a. 1 r. 11 p. were allotted to the churchwardens and overseers, now represented by the parish council, let at £14 a year.
Fuel Allotment.-Under the same Act an allotment, containing 17 a. 1 r. 9 p., was awarded for the poor in compensation for the right of procuring fuel. The land is let at £60 a year, which, together with the income of the preceding charities, was in 1906 distributed in coals to 200 persons.
In 1820 the Rev. James Burgess, D.D., gave £1,500 consols to the rector of Hanworth in trust to promote the education of youth. The charity is regulated by scheme of the Charity Commissioners dated 12 April 1878.
By an order dated 15 October 1897, made under the Local Government Act, 1894, £500 consols, one-third part thereof, was apportioned as the Ecclesiastical Charity of Dr. Burgess, and £1,000 consols, two-third parts thereof, as the Educational Charity of Dr. Burgess. The trust funds are held by the official trustees. The dividends of £12 10s. and £25 are applied for purposes connected with the Sunday school and for educational purposes respectively.
From: British History Online
Source: Spelthorne Hundred: Hanworth. A History of the County of Middlesex : Volume II, William Page (Editor) (1911).
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